【ongoing】语音解剖学-补充材料一-呼吸 Knowledge of Breathing

本文旨在对博文《语音解剖学 Speech Anatomy》中呼吸章节的内容,进行更多补充说明。

一,有关气体通道:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breathing , Passage of air

二,有关气体温度:

Usually air is breathed in and out through the nose. The nasal cavities (between the nostrils and the pharynx) are quite narrow, firstly by being divided in two by the nasal septum, and secondly by lateral walls that have several longitudinal folds, or shelves, called nasal conchae,[8] thus exposing a large area of nasal mucous membrane to the air as it is inhaled (and exhaled). This causes the inhaled air to take up moisture from the wet mucus, and warmth from the underlying blood vessels, so that the air is very nearly saturated with water vapor and is at almost body temperature by the time it reaches the larynx.[7] Part of this moisture and heat is recaptured as the exhaled air moves out over the partially dried-out, hygroscopic, cooled mucus in the nasal passages, during breathing out. The sticky mucus also traps much of the particulate matter that is breathed in, preventing it from reaching the lungs.

三,有关气体交换:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breathing ,Gas exchange

四、有关控制呼吸的肌肉

Muscles of respiration

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%91%BC%E5%90%B8

以下是十条在用力吸气时会用到的肌肉[3]

横膈膜肋间肌斜角肌胸小肌前锯肌胸锁乳突肌提肋肌斜方肌背阔肌锁骨下肌

以下是八条在用力呼气时会用到的肌肉[4]

肋间内肌腹内斜肌腹外斜肌提肛肌胸横肌 腹横肌锥状肌腹直肌

五、有关控制呼吸的神经

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoracic_diaphragm

The diaphragm is primarily innervated by the phrenic nerve(膈神经) which is formed from the cervical nerves(颈神经) C3, C4 and C5.

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